distinguished

The meaning of Distinguished in dream | Dream interpretation


(See Banner; Fame; Horn)

Islamic Dream Interpretation | Ibn Seerin


Distinguished | Dream Interpretation

The keywords of this dream: Distinguished


CHAIRMAN

To dream that you see the chairman of any public body, foretells you will seek elevation and be recompensed by receiving a high position of trust.

To see one looking out of humor you are threatened with unsatisfactory states.

If you are a chairman, you will be distinguished for your justice and kindness to others. ... Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

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Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

CORONATION

To dream of a coronation, foretells you will enjoy acquaintances and friendships with prominent people.

For a young woman to be participating in a coronation, foretells that she will come into some surprising favor with distinguished personages. But if the coronation presents disagreeable incoherence in her dreams, then she may expect unsatisfactory states growing out of anticipated pleasure. ... Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

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Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

EPICURE

To dream of sitting at the table with an epicure, denotes that you will enjoy some fine distinction, but you will be surrounded by people of selfish principles.

To dream that you an epicure yourself, you will cultivate your mind, body and taste to the highest polish.

For a woman to dream of trying to satisfy an epicure, signifies that she will have a distinguished husband, but to her he will be a tyrant. ... Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

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Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

JEWELS

To dream of jewels, denotes much pleasure and riches.

To wear them, brings rank and satisfied ambitions.

To see others wearing them, distinguished places will be held by you, or by some friend.

To dream of jeweled garments, betokens rare good fortune to the dreamer. Inheritance or speculation will raise him to high positions.

If you inherit jewelry, your prosperity will be unusual, but not entirely satisfactory.

To dream of giving jewelry away, warns you that some vital estate is threatening you.

For a young woman to dream that she receives jewelry, indicates much pleasure and a desirable marriage.

To dream that she loses jewels, she will meet people who will flatter and deceive her.

To find jewels, denotes rapid and brilliant advancement in affairs of interest.

To give jewels away, you will unconsciously work detriment to yourself.

To buy them, proves that you will be very successful in momentous affairs, especially those pertaining to the heart. ... Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

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Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

SCULPTOR

To dream of a sculptor, foretells you will change from your present position to one less lucrative, but more distinguished.

For a woman to dream that her husband or lover is a sculptor, foretells she will enjoy favors from men of high position. ... Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

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Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

SKY

To dream of the sky, signifies distinguished honors and interesting travel with cultured companions, if the sky is clear. Otherwise, it portends blasted expectations, and trouble with women.

To dream of floating in the sky among weird faces and animals, and wondering all the while if you are really awake, or only dreaming, foretells that all trouble, the most excruciating pain, that reach even the dullest sense will be distilled into one drop called jealousy, and will be inserted into your faithful love, and loyalty will suffer dethronement.

To see the sky turn red, indicates that public disquiet and rioting may be expected. See Heaven and Illumination.... Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

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Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

VATICAN

To dream of the vatican, signifies unexpected favors will fall within your grasp. You will form the acquaintance of distinguished people, if you see royal personages speaking to the Pope. ... Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

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Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

WAX TAPER

To dream of lighting wax tapers, denotes that some pleasing occurrence will bring you into association with friends long absent.

To blow them out, signals disappointing times, and sickness will forestall expected opportunities of meeting distinguished friends.... Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

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Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

WELCOME

To dream that you receive a warm welcome into any society, foretells that you will become distinguished among your acquaintances and will have deference shown you by strangers. Your fortune will approximate anticipation.

To accord others welcome, denotes your congeniality and warm nature will be your passport into pleasures, or any other desired place. ... Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

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Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation

BOBBY, BOBBIE

Distinguished leader, bright in counsel, enlightened one; see “robert”... Dream Dictionary Unlimited

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Dream Dictionary Unlimited

HERBERT

Enlightened protector, distinguished... Dream Dictionary Unlimited

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Dream Dictionary Unlimited

MAX, MAXINE

Renowned, distinguished, trustworthy... Dream Dictionary Unlimited

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Dream Dictionary Unlimited

MAXIMILLIAN

Highly capable, secure, distinguished character... Dream Dictionary Unlimited

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Dream Dictionary Unlimited

OWEN

Noble, distinguished one... Dream Dictionary Unlimited

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Dream Dictionary Unlimited

ROBERT, ROBB

Bright in counsel, distinguished leader, enlightened one... Dream Dictionary Unlimited

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Dream Dictionary Unlimited

ROY

Distinguished, honorable king... Dream Dictionary Unlimited

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Dream Dictionary Unlimited

ARCHANGEL GABRIEL

(Upon him be peace.) Seeinghim in a dream and feeling happy for his meeting brings glad tidings.

If the archangel Gabriel in one’s dream speaks to him, advises him, or admonishes him in the dream, it means receiving a great honor, strength, victory in one’s life and glad tidings.

If the person is oppressed, it means that he will triumph at the end. Ifhe is sick, it means that he will recover from his illness. Ifhe is in a state of depression or fear, it means that he will overcome it and he shall sail into success. Ifhe had not yet performed his pilgrimage to Mecca, it means that he will fulfill it. Seeing the archangel Gabriel in a dream also means glad tidings of martyrdom, even if the person lives a long life.

If one receives some food or fruits from him in the dream, it means that he is one of the dwellers of paradise. However, if a disbeliever sees him in a dream, it means that he will face tribulations and punishments in his life. Ifhe considers the archangel Gabriel and the archangel Michael as equals in a dream, it means that he agrees with the people of Jewish faith.

To his own detriment, such a person might steer into an activity that is opposite to God’s instructions and consequently earns himself God’s wrath.

If the archangel Gabriel (uwbp) greets someone in his dream, it means that such a person will become a great man of knowledge and he will be recognized and distinguished in his own field.

The archangel Gabriel in a dream also represents the messenger of the king, the confidant, the carrier of glad tidings or the person who announces the birth of a son. Seeing him in a dream also indicates increase in one’s devotion, learning and acquiring in-depth knowledge of mystical realities. Seeing him (uwbp) in a dream also signifies the smooth rising of the soul after death for someone who is dying.

The archangel Gabriel in a dream also represents a movement, struggle, triumph and understanding the meanings of religious knowledge or learning the secrets of astrology.

If one sees the archangel Gabriel distressed in a dream, it means that a calamity will befall the person seeing the dream.

If one becomes Gabriel in a dream, it means that he will become generous, magnanimous and blessed in his actions and performances.... Islamic Dream Interpretation

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Islamic Dream Interpretation

BANNER

(Beacon; Distinguished; Excellence; Flag)Abanner in a dream represents public knowledge, fame, presidency, laurel of victory, a man of knowledge, an Imam, or an ascetic who is vigilant and courageous, or a rich and a generous man, or a strong and a victorious hero whose example is loved and followed.

If the banner is red, then one will reap happiness from the person it represents, or he may engage in a war against him. As for a woman, a banner in a dream represents her husband. Ifone sees banners flying during a parade, they mean rain.

If the banners are black in the dream, they mean that one will meet a man of knowledge. Ifthe banners are white, then they represent ajealous person who will never be married.

If they are yellow, they represent an epidemic disease.

If they are green, they mean a journey by land.

A banner or a flag in a dream also means that one will be wrapped in ambiguity in relation to a particular matter and he will not find a way out. Ifone sees a flag and a brigade in a dream, it means that he will be able to find his way through the difficulties and overcome his sadness and adversities. His heart will have peace and his path will open before him. Ifthe flag represents a country in the dream, it means that one may visit such a country.

If a woman sees herself burying three banners in a dream, it means that she will marry three men who belong to the noble class of the society. Such three people will die one after the other. As for a pregnant woman, a flag in a dream means a son and for an unwed woman, it means a husband.

A large banner in a dream means rain and winds.

The carrier of the flag is usually interpreted to represent a judge.

If one sees himself carrying a banner in his dream, it means that he is seeking the seat of a judge.

(Also see... Islamic Dream Interpretation

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Islamic Dream Interpretation

CONSCRIPTION

(Call-up; Draft; Enlist; Military service; Mobilization) A military draft in a dream means cognizance of what is good and beneficial for everyone and shows equality between the natives of the land, the poor and the rich, the close relative, the distinguished and the unknown.... Islamic Dream Interpretation

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Islamic Dream Interpretation

HOLY BOOK

(Qur’an; The Last Revelation) In a dream, the Holy Book, or the Qur’an represents a king or a judge who deals with Islamic jurisprudence.

If a king, a ruler, or a judge sees that the Holy Book does no longer exist, or if he sees it burning, or if its contents are washed away in a dream, it means his death.

If one sees a ruler or a governor handwriting a copy of the Holy Book in a dream, it means that he is ajust person who uses the divine laws in makinghis decision. Ifajudge sees himselfhandwriting a copy of the Holy Book in a dream, it means that he does not share his knowledge, and that he is audacious about his rank and status.

If a religious scholar or a theologian sees himself writing a copy of Holy Book in a dream, it means that he will profit from a business deal.

If one sees a king, or a ruler swallowing the Holy Book in a dream, it means that he may die soon.

If a judge swallows the Holy Book in a dream, it means that he accepts bribes.

If a ruler sees himself erasing what is written in the Holy Book in a dream, it means that he will be exiled.

If ajudge erases what is written in the Holy Book in a dream, it also means his death.

If he erases it by licking it with his own tongue in a dream, it means that he will commit an awful sin.

If a witness erases it in a dream, it means that he will deny his own testimony. Carrying the Holy Book, or buying a copy of the Qur’an in a dream means living by its criterion. Reading from the Holy Book before God’s Prophet, upon whom be peace, in a dream means that one will commit himself to memorizing it. Eating the pages of the Holy Book in a dream means accepting bribes.

If a layman eats the pages of the Holy Book, or few lines from some pages in a dream, it means that he earns his livelihood from reciting the Holy Qur’[m or teaching it. Eating the pages of the Holy Book in a dream also means earning one’s livelihood from copying and selling it. Seeing the Holy Book in a dream also mans growing in wisdom. Handwriting copies of the Holy Book in a dream denotes one’s piety, or it could represent a religious scholar who lives by the book, act by its commands and shares his knowledge with others. Tearing off the pages of the Holy Book in a dream means ingratitude toward God’s revelations, or denying God’s favors, or questioning some of them.

If one does something to the Holy Book in his dream that he would abhor to do in wakefulness, it means that he has lost his religious devotion and faith. Carrying a copy of the HolyBook in a dream means attaining power and acquiring knowledge.

The Holy Book in a dream also represents a husband, a wife, a son, or wealth. Ifa sick person sees it in his dream, it means that he will recover from his illness. Ifthe one who sees it in his dream is facing an enemy, it means that he will triumph over him.

If he is a sinner, it means that he will repent of his sins and turn to his Lord, or it could mean that he may receive an inheritance.

If one sees himself following innovations and he recognizes that in his sleep, his dream denotes a warning from God Almighty. Seeing the Holy Book in a dream also could mean seeing wonders, witnessing a miracle, hearing news, receiving happy news, or it could mean longevity for one who browse through it from cover to cover in his dream.

The Holy Book in a dream also represents gardens, heavens, places of worship, or a person one is commanded to obey, such as a ruler, or a father, a mother, one’s teacher, or shaikh, or it could mean making a true oath, receiving glad tidings, admonition or a warning. Seeing the Holy Book or any of the early divine revelations in a dream means that one may preside over people.

If one sees himself carrying the Holy Book, or even any book of revelations, and if when he opens it finds the pages blank with no writing inside it in the dream, it means that he portrays himself to be what he is not, or that he impersonates a scholar, or pretends to be religious. Kissing the Holy Book in a dream means revering what it contains and adhering to what it commands.

If one looks into the pages of the Holy Book and finds its lines crooked in a dream, it means that he lives satisfied with what he has, and fulfills his required duties accordingly. Stealing a copy of the Holy Book and hiding it in a dream means that one cheats in performing his own prayers, or fails to do them properly.

If one sees himself looking in the Holy Book, then writing from what he is reading on his own garment in the dream, it means that he interprets the Qur’imic revelation according to his own liking.

If one sees a Holy Book sitting in his lap, then if a chick comes and picks all the words written therein in a dream, it means that one will beget a child who will memorize and read the Holy Qur’an as an inheritance, and benefit from the piety of his father, and as a trust, a lawful earning and a source of strength in his life. Buying a copy of the Holy Book in dream means benefits, prosperity and becoming a renowned and a distinguished religious scholar.

If the Holy Book is snatched away from someone’s hands in a dream, it means that he will lose his knowledge, or perhaps lose his employment.

If one sees himself spreading the pages of the Holy Book on a flat surface in a dream, it means that he is seeking wisdom which he will get, or that he may receive an inheritance.

If one sees himself putting the Holy Book over his shoulders in a dream, it means that he will receive an appointment, or be entrusted with a duty to guard, or that he will memorize the Holy Qur’an. Ifone finds himself trying to eat the pages of the Holy Book in a dream, it means that he is a regular reader of the Qur’an. Ifone sees himself trying to eat the pages of the holy Book but is unable to do so in a dream, it means that he tries to memorize the Holy Qur’an from time to time but keeps forgetting what he learns.

(Also see Qur’an)... Islamic Dream Interpretation

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Islamic Dream Interpretation

HORN

(Distinguished) In a dream, a horn means strength and invincibility. Having a horn in a dream means conquering one’s enemy.

If one sees a ruler having two horns in a dream, it means that such a ruler will control interests throughout the East and the West. Ahorn in a dream also represents a relative from whom one can draw benefits.

If one grows two animal horns in a dream, it means that he will die from grief and coercion.

A horn in a dream also represents a century, years, weapons, money, children, or the reason behind one’s pride or his distinguished look.

(Also see Trumpet)... Islamic Dream Interpretation

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Islamic Dream Interpretation

TAP

(African steps; Footsteps; Loud steps; Tap dancing; Sound of walking) In a dream, loud steps represent distinguished wealthy merchants who are envied for their richness by everyone, and who are despised for their stinginess.... Islamic Dream Interpretation

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Islamic Dream Interpretation

VETERINARIAN

In a dream, a veterinarian is a person who adorns and beautifies distinguished and honored people, and who supports and assists them in developing strength. Seeing a veterinarian in a dream also means performing a marriage ceremony, travels, a pharmacist or a merchant. In a dream, a veterinarian also means nursing the wounded soldiers in the battlefield.

A veterinarian in a dream also may be interpreted as one’s physician, one who practices righteousness, a wise man, a specialist in setting broken bones, cupping, or practicing bloodletting medicine.... Islamic Dream Interpretation

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Islamic Dream Interpretation

RUNNING

Dreaming of running competitively should be distinguished from dreams which have you running to or from something.

If you are simply running with no goal, it may be an indication that you need to slow down in your every day life.

If you are competing, you need to consider your recent rivalries and realistically look at the current challenges.

If you are running in a race and win, your unconscious may be expressing confidence that you may or may not feel in the wakened state. Running in your dreams may also symbolize the energy levels, the strength, or the force that you have to get through life.

(A similar definition appears on top of the page for Race , since many people continue to ask me for running, I decided to list them separately.)... The Bedside Dream Dictionary

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The Bedside Dream Dictionary

TWO

The opposites and contradictions that are in need of differentiation and balance. Your ambivalence is becoming known, which is a positive development.

According to Jung, two identical symbols refer to the unconscious, because two identical things cannot be distinguished from one another. Messengers from the underworld, for that reason, appear usually in twos.... Little Giant Encyclopedia

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Little Giant Encyclopedia

TULIPS

To dream of these flowers is a sign of abundance.

If you see yourself standing in a garden surrounded by tulips, it fortells that you will be rich and distinguished.... Gypsy Dream Dictionary

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Gypsy Dream Dictionary

ANTHONY HOPKINS

A humble and distinguished character actor, Anthony Hopkins has achieved fame and recognition in numerous roles. He may offer the message that you may need to become more humble and honorable. As Hannibal the cannibal, in Silence of the Lambs and Hannibal, this strong character actor may come as the archetype of the Devil to demonstrate the force of evil in your life.... Ariadne's Book of Dream

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Ariadne's Book of Dream

ZOOLOGICAL GARDEN

It is a sign of pleasurable travel in company with a distinguished person to dream of watching the animals in a zoo.... The Complete Dream Book

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The Complete Dream Book

CASTLE

Vision: Looking at a castle: you have too much imagination and unrealistic dreams—a recipe for disappointment. Living in a castle: “pride goes before a fall.’’ Being a guest in a castle: you will meet a distinguished, influential person.

Depth Psychology: The castle is a warning of being too vain and ambitious. See Fortress, Palace.... Dreamers Dictionary

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Dreamers Dictionary

DOE

Vision: Seeing a doe: a pleasant encounter is ahead. Seeing many does fleeing: you are offending your friends or running away from them.

A tame doe: children will give you a lot of joy. Killing a doe while hunting: grief and sorrow in your love relationship. Seeing a buck: you are about to make a very stupid mistake. See Deer. Elating venison: you will either receive an invitation or a very distinguished visitor.

Depth Psychology: This gentle and shy animal symbolizes your soft and vulnerable side. Don’t try to hide it. See Animals, Forest.... Dreamers Dictionary

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Dreamers Dictionary

NOBLE

Vision: You see yourself acting very nobly in a dream: you are still too vain and too arrogant. Being in distinguished company: develop more skepticism—you are too easily impressed by appearances—look behind the “curtain”!... Dreamers Dictionary

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Dreamers Dictionary

FIELD

To dream about fields represents plentiful resources, liberty, and satisfaction. You could be dealing with a period of maturity. This dream could also represent your affection for nature.

To dream about freshly plowed fields represents maturity, a quick gain of fortune and prosperity, and distinguished honors.

To dream about barren fields indicates pessimism and the negative view you have for what the future holds.... Dream Symbols and Analysis

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Dream Symbols and Analysis

FISH

To dream that you see fish in clear water streams indicates that you will find approval from the wealthy and the distinguished.

For young women to dream of fish suggests that she will find a charming, good-looking mate.

If the fish is swimming, then this could indicate conception. Some women will dream of fish swimming when they become pregnant.

The fish is also an old symbol of Christianity.

To dream about eating fish represents your faith, fortune, spirituality, stamina, kindness, and lasting relationships.

To dream about wading into water to catch fish suggests that you will find fortune through your talents and efforts.

To dream about dead fish represents that you may lose money or influence through a difficult circumstance.

To dream about cooking fish suggests that you are combining new beliefs with your faith and wisdom.

If you are cleaning fish then you are changing your outward expressions so they will be more satisfying to others. You are purging ill intent and being cautious of how you present your feelings.... Dream Symbols and Analysis

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Dream Symbols and Analysis

VATICAN

A dream of the Vatican is usually a good omen signifying help and unexpected gain due solely to the actions of others.

If royalty is present in the Vatican you will receive your help from very distinguished people. One negative approach on this dream is, if the Vatican is deserted and fallen into ruin the dreamer would suffer a loss of friends and supporters.... Encyclopedia of Dreams

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Encyclopedia of Dreams

DOORMAT

To dream about a Welcome Mat is a positive dream, foretelling that you will be distinguished amongst your social circle.

If the doormat in your dream is blank, disappointments may be in store for you.... My Dream Interpretation

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My Dream Interpretation

WELCOME MAT

To dream about a welcome mat is a positive dream, foretelling that you will be distinguished amongst your social circle.... My Dream Interpretation

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My Dream Interpretation

SKY

Dreaming of a clear sky indicates an appreciation of culture and a desire to be with distinguished persons.

If you dream that you are floating high in the sky among the clouds seeing weird people and creatures, it is a sign that you will be disillusioned with love.... Psycho Dream Interpretation

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Psycho Dream Interpretation

DO YOUR DREAMS HAVE A MEANING?

The Scientific Literature of Dream-Problems I shall begin by giving a short account of the views of earlier writers on this subject and of the status of the dream-problem in contemporary science; since in the course of this treatise, I shall not often have occasion to refer to either. In spite of thousands of years of endeavour, little progress has been made in the scientific understanding of dreams. This fact has been so universally acknowledged by previous writers on the subject that it seems hardly necessary to quote individual opinions.

The reader will find, in many stimulating observations, and plenty of interesting material relating to our subject, but little or nothing that concerns the true nature of the dream, or that solves definitely any of its enigmas.

The educated layman, of course, knows even less of the matter. The conception of the dream that was held in prehistoric ages by primitive peoples, and the influence which it may have exerted on the formation of their conceptions of the universe, and of the soul, is a theme of such great interest that it is only with reluctance that I refrain from dealing with it in these pages. I will refer the reader to the well-known works of Sir John Lubbock (Lord Avebury), Herbert Spencer, E. B. Tylor and other writers; I will only add that we shall not realise the importance of these problems and speculations until we have completed the task of dream interpretation that lies before us. A reminiscence of the concept of the dream that was held in primitive times seems to underlie the evaluation of the dream which was current among the peoples of classical antiquity.[1] They took it for granted that dreams were related to the world of the supernatural beings in whom they believed, and that they brought inspirations from the gods and demons. Moreover, it appeared to them that dreams must serve a special purpose in respect of the dreamer; that, as a rule, they predicted the future.

The extraordinary variations in the content of dreams, and in the impressions which they produced on the dreamer, made it, of course, very difficult to formulate a coherent conception of them, and necessitated manifold differentiations and group-formations, according to their value and reliability.

The valuation of dreams by the individual philosophers of antiquity naturally depended on the importance which they were prepared to attribute to manticism in general. In the two works of Aristotle in which there is mention of dreams, they are already regarded as constituting a problem of psychology. We are told that the dream is not god-sent, that it is not of divine but of daimonic origin.

For nature is really daimonic, not divine; that is to say, the dream is not a supernatural revelation, but is subject to the laws of the human spirit, which has, of course, a kinship with the divine.

The dream is defined as the psychic activity of the sleeper, inasmuch as he is asleep. Aristotle was acquainted with some of the characteristics of the dream-life; for example, he knew that a dream converts the slight sensations perceived in sleep into intense sensations (‘one imagines that one is walking through fire, and feels hot, if this or that part of the body becomes only quite slightly warm’), which led him to conclude that dreams might easily betray to the physician the first indications of an incipient physical change which escaped observation during the day.[2] As has been said, those writers of antiquity who preceded Aristotle did not regard the dream as a product of the dreaming psyche, but as an inspiration of divine origin, and in ancient times, the two opposing tendencies which we shall find throughout the ages in respect of the evaluation of the dream-life, were already perceptible.

The ancients distinguished between the true and valuable dreams which were sent to the dreamer as warnings, or to foretell future events, and the vain, fraudulent and empty dreams, whose object was to misguide him or lead him to destruction. The pre-scientific conception of the dream which obtained among the ancients was, of course, in perfect keeping with their general conception of the universe, which was accustomed to project as an external reality that which possessed reality only in the life of the psyche. Further, it accounted for the main impression made upon the waking life by the morning memory of the dream; for in this memory the dream, as compared with the rest of the psychic content, seems to be something alien, coming, as it were, from another world. It would be an error to suppose that the theory of the supernatural origin of dreams lacks followers even in our own times; for quite apart from pietistic and mystical writers -- who cling, as they are perfectly justified in doing, to the remnants of the once predominant realm of the supernatural until these remnants have been swept away by scientific explanation -- we not infrequently find that quite intelligent persons, who in other respects are averse to anything of a romantic nature, go so far as to base their religious belief in the existence and co-operation of superhuman spiritual powers on the inexplicable nature of the phenomena of dreams (Haffner).

The validity ascribed to the dream life by certain schools of philosophy -- for example, by the school of Schelling -- is a distinct reminiscence of the undisputed belief in the divinity of dreams which prevailed in antiquity; and for some thinkers, the mantic or prophetic power of dreams is still a subject of debate. This is due to the fact that the explanations attempted by psychology are too inadequate to cope with the accumulated material, however strongly the scientific thinker may feel that such superstitious doctrines should be repudiated. To write a history of our scientific knowledge of the dream problem is extremely difficult, because, valuable though this knowledge may be in certain respects, no real progress in a definite direction is as yet discernible. No real foundation of verified results has hitherto been established on which future investigators might continue to build. Every new author approaches the same problems afresh, and from the very beginning.

If I were to enumerate such authors in chronological order, giving a survey of the opinions which each has held concerning the problems of the dream, I should be quite unable to draw a clear and complete picture of the present state of our knowledge on the subject. I have therefore preferred to base my method of treatment on themes rather than on authors, and in attempting the solution of each problem of the dream, I shall cite the material found in the literature of the subject. But as I have not succeeded in mastering the whole of this literature -- for it is widely dispersed and interwoven with the literature of other subjects -- I must ask my readers to rest content with my survey as it stands, provided that no fundamental fact or important point of view has been overlooked. In a supplement to a later German edition, the author adds: I shall have to justify myself for not extending my summary of the literature of dream problems to cover the period between first appearance of this book and the publication of the second edition. This justification may not seem very satisfactory to the reader; none the less, to me it was decisive.

The motives which induced me to summarise the treatment of dreams in the literature of the subject have been exhausted by the foregoing introduction; to have continued this would have cost me a great deal of effort and would not have been particularly useful or instructive.

For the interval in question -- a period of nine years -- has yielded nothing new or valuable as regards the conception of dreams, either in actual material or in novel points of view. In most of the literature which has appeared since the publication of my own work, the latter has not been mentioned or discussed; it has, of course, received the least attention from the so-called ‘research workers on dreams’, who have thus afforded a brilliant example of the aversion to learning anything new so characteristic of the scientist. ‘Les savants ne sont pas curieux’, said the scoffer, Anatole France.

If there were such a thing in science as the right of revenge, I, in my turn, should be justified in ignoring the literature which has appeared since the publication of this book.

The few reviews which have appeared in the scientific journals are so full of misconceptions and lack of comprehension that my only possible answer to my critics would be a request that they should read this book over again -- or perhaps merely that they should read it! And in a supplement to the fourth German edition which appeared in 1914, a year after I published the first English translation of this work, he writes: Since then, the state of affairs has certainly undergone a change; my contribution to the ‘interpretation of dreams’ is no longer ignored in the literature of the subject. But the new situation makes it even more impossible to continue the foregoing summary.

The Interpretation of Dreams has evoked a whole series of new contentions and problems, which have been expounded by the authors in the most varied fashions. But I cannot discuss these works until I have developed the theories to which their authors have referred. Whatever has appeared to me as valuable in this recent literature, I have accordingly reviewed in the course of the following exposition.... About Dream Interpretation

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About Dream Interpretation

DO YOUR DREAMS MEAN ANYTHING?

The Scientific Literature of Dream-Problems

I shall begin by giving a short account of the views of earlier writers on this subject and of the status of the dream-problem in contemporary science; since in the course of this treatise, I shall not often have occasion to refer to either. In spite of thousands of years of endeavour, little progress has been made in the scientific understanding of dreams. This fact has been so universally acknowledged by previous writers on the subject that it seems hardly necessary to quote individual opinions.

The reader will find, in many stimulating observations, and plenty of interesting material relating to our subject, but little or nothing that concerns the true nature of the dream, or that solves definitely any of its enigmas.

The educated layman, of course, knows even less of the matter.

The conception of the dream that was held in prehistoric ages by primitive peoples, and the influence which it may have exerted on the formation of their conceptions of the universe, and of the soul, is a theme of such great interest that it is only with reluctance that I refrain from dealing with it in these pages. I will refer the reader to the well-known works of Sir John Lubbock (Lord Avebury), Herbert Spencer, E. B. Tylor and other writers; I will only add that we shall not realise the importance of these problems and speculations until we have completed the task of dream interpretation that lies before us.

A reminiscence of the concept of the dream that was held in primitive times seems to underlie the evaluation of the dream which was current among the peoples of classical antiquity.[1] They took it for granted that dreams were related to the world of the supernatural beings in whom they believed, and that they brought inspirations from the gods and demons. Moreover, it appeared to them that dreams must serve a special purpose in respect of the dreamer; that, as a rule, they predicted the future.

The extraordinary variations in the content of dreams, and in the impressions which they produced on the dreamer, made it, of course, very difficult to formulate a coherent conception of them, and necessitated manifold differentiations and group-formations, according to their value and reliability.

The valuation of dreams by the individual philosophers of antiquity naturally depended on the importance which they were prepared to attribute to manticism in general.

In the two works of Aristotle in which there is mention of dreams, they are already regarded as constituting a problem of psychology. We are told that the dream is not god-sent, that it is not of divine but of daimonic origin.

For nature is really daimonic, not divine; that is to say, the dream is not a supernatural revelation, but is subject to the laws of the human spirit, which has, of course, a kinship with the divine.

The dream is defined as the psychic activity of the sleeper, inasmuch as he is asleep. Aristotle was acquainted with some of the characteristics of the dream-life; for example, he knew that a dream converts the slight sensations perceived in sleep into intense sensations (‰_÷one imagines that one is walking through fire, and feels hot, if this or that part of the body becomes only quite slightly warm‰_ª), which led him to conclude that dreams might easily betray to the physician the first indications of an incipient physical change which escaped observation during the day.[2]

As has been said, those writers of antiquity who preceded Aristotle did not regard the dream as a product of the dreaming psyche, but as an inspiration of divine origin, and in ancient times, the two opposing tendencies which we shall find throughout the ages in respect of the evaluation of the dream-life, were already perceptible.

The ancients distinguished between the true and valuable dreams which were sent to the dreamer as warnings, or to foretell future events, and the vain, fraudulent and empty dreams, whose object was to misguide him or lead him to destruction.

The pre-scientific conception of the dream which obtained among the ancients was, of course, in perfect keeping with their general conception of the universe, which was accustomed to project as an external reality that which possessed reality only in the life of the psyche. Further, it accounted for the main impression made upon the waking life by the morning memory of the dream; for in this memory the dream, as compared with the rest of the psychic content, seems to be something alien, coming, as it were, from another world. It would be an error to suppose that the theory of the supernatural origin of dreams lacks followers even in our own times; for quite apart from pietistic and mystical writers -- who cling, as they are perfectly justified in doing, to the remnants of the once predominant realm of the supernatural until these remnants have been swept away by scientific explanation -- we not infrequently find that quite intelligent persons, who in other respects are averse to anything of a romantic nature, go so far as to base their religious belief in the existence and co-operation of superhuman spiritual powers on the inexplicable nature of the phenomena of dreams (Haffner).

The validity ascribed to the dream life by certain schools of philosophy -- for example, by the school of Schelling -- is a distinct reminiscence of the undisputed belief in the divinity of dreams which prevailed in antiquity; and for some thinkers, the mantic or prophetic power of dreams is still a subject of debate. This is due to the fact that the explanations attempted by psychology are too inadequate to cope with the accumulated material, however strongly the scientific thinker may feel that such superstitious doctrines should be repudiated.

To write a history of our scientific knowledge of the dream problem is extremely difficult, because, valuable though this knowledge may be in certain respects, no real progress in a definite direction is as yet discernible. No real foundation of verified results has hitherto been established on which future investigators might continue to build. Every new author approaches the same problems afresh, and from the very beginning.

If I were to enumerate such authors in chronological order, giving a survey of the opinions which each has held concerning the problems of the dream, I should be quite unable to draw a clear and complete picture of the present state of our knowledge on the subject. I have therefore preferred to base my method of treatment on themes rather than on authors, and in attempting the solution of each problem of the dream, I shall cite the material found in the literature of the subject.

But as I have not succeeded in mastering the whole of this literature - for it is widely dispersed and interwoven with the literature of other subjects -- I must ask my readers to rest content with my survey as it stands, provided that no fundamental fact or important point of view has been overlooked.

In a supplement to a later German edition, the author adds:

I shall have to justify myself for not extending my summary of the literature of dream problems to cover the period between first appearance of this book and the publication of the second edition. This justification may not seem very satisfactory to the reader; none the less, to me it was decisive.

The motives which induced me to summarise the treatment of dreams in the literature of the subject have been exhausted by the foregoing introduction; to have continued this would have cost me a great deal of effort and would not have been particularly useful or instructive.

For the interval in question -- a period of nine years -- has yielded nothing new or valuable as regards the conception of dreams, either in actual material or in novel points of view. In most of the literature which has appeared since the publication of my own work, the latter has not been mentioned or discussed; it has, of course, received the least attention from the so-called ‰_÷research workers on dreams‰_ª, who have thus afforded a brilliant example of the aversion to learning anything new so characteristic of the scientist. ‰_÷Les savants ne sont pas curieux‰_ª, said the scoffer, Anatole France.

If there were such a thing in science as the right of revenge, I, in my turn, should be justified in ignoring the literature which has appeared since the publication of this book.

The few reviews which have appeared in the scientific journals are so full of misconceptions and lack of comprehension that my only possible answer to my critics would be a request that they should read this book over again -- or perhaps merely that they should read it!

And in a supplement to the fourth German edition which appeared in 1914, a year after I published the first English translation of this work, he writes:

Since then, the state of affairs has certainly undergone a change; my contribution to the ‰_÷interpretation of dreams‰_ª is no longer ignored in the literature of the subject. But the new situation makes it even more impossible to continue the foregoing summary.

The Interpretation of Dreams has evoked a whole series of new contentions and problems, which have been expounded by the authors in the most varied fashions. But I cannot discuss these works until I have developed the theories to which their authors have referred. Whatever has appeared to me as valuable in this recent literature, I have accordingly reviewed in the course of the following exposition.... About Dream Interpretation

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About Dream Interpretation

ANIMAL(S)

(see also entries for particular animals; e.g. Bear, Cat)

(1) Parents may appear in dreams in the guise of animals. The animal will then usually be a focus for the dreamer’s ambivalent - love-hate - feelings towards the parent. For example, a spider or a cat may signify the threatening aspect of a mother from whose influence you need to liberate yourself.

Two of Freud’s most famous patients had animal phobias, as did a patient of Sandor Ferenczi (a member of Freud’s inner circle). One dreamed of white wolves in the branches of a walnut tree outside his bedroom window and the other had strong ambivalent feelings (fear and attraction) towards horses; the third was obsessed with poultry. Freud concluded that in all three cases the animals were father surrogates: in each case the person’s feelings for his father had been displaced on to animals.

(2) Animals may represent other people, besides parents. What you associate with the particular animal - slyness or aggressiveness or whatever — may be a characteristic of the particular person; the way you react to the animal in the dream may express your (perhaps unconscious) feelings towards the person.

(3) Animals in dreams may be symbolic of some primitive - ‘animal’, or even ‘beasdy5 - part of your psyche: some instinctive urge, for example. Thus, if in the dream your emotional response to the animal is one of fear, this would seem to indicate a fear of the instinctive urge (which, because of the fear, has been repressed).

If the animal has a threatening appearance, it may be a symbol of the danger that threatens the peace of the psyche when some part of it is neglected and confined to the ‘cellar’ - the depths of the unconscious - and not allowed proper expression at the conscious level. This situation may also be symbolized by the figure of a caged or wounded animal: we sometimes control our instincts too tightly or even maltreat them, and, just as animals are never more fierce or dangerous than when wounded, so it is with our Svounded’ instincts.

A view well worth considering is that we cannot - without detriment to ourselves - dispense with our animal nature, any more than with our ‘higher’ or ‘spiritual’ nature. The way to achieve peace and happiness is to allow both these sides of our nature to develop and find fulfilment in and through each other, in a symbiosis in which body and spirit, instead of going their separate ways, cooperate with mutual respect, each supplying means for the other’s fulfilment.

(4) A threatening or ferocious animal may represent aggression or anger buried in the unconscious.

If you think this may be so in your case (perhaps because you are prone to irrational, disproportionate outbursts of rage), look for the origins of the aggression. It may go back to early childhood: a child’s desire for a parent and its consequent jealousy and resentment towards the other parent may result in feelings of guilt, which in turn give rise to a desire to punish oneself. This aggressiveness directed against oneself (i.e. masochism) may then spill over into aggressiveness or rancour towards other people (i.e. sadism), especially loved ones or people closely related. Typically, an unresolved Oedipus complex (the ambivalent, love-hate feelings of an infant towards a parent) may display itself in later life in a similar ambivalence towards a spouse - an inability to love someone without simultaneously wanting to punish him or her.

Contradictory feelings towards others are a sign of inner conflict, usually a conflict between desire and conscience. And what we call conscience may be a morbid censoring and prohibiting mechanism set in motion by a childhood fear of punishment. This needs to be distinguished from a healthy conscience, which consists of all those moral guidelines we give ourselves by rational reflection. Some compromise between desires and the need to survive and succeed socially is almost inevitable; but a reasonably negotiated compromise is far preferable to the potentially dangerous inner tension that results from submitting to irrational phobias posing as the moral law.

(5) A tamed animal, or the act of taming an animal, may symbolize (the need for) that kind of controlled expression of instinct that is appropriate for living as a part of civilized society or for feeling that you are ‘king of the castle’ - that is, in control of your own actions.

(6) The wolf in the Little Red Riding Hood story exemplifies another piece of animal symbolism. The wolf here represents for a sexually inexperienced woman the terrifying aspect of the male, the fear of sexual contact. In its earliest versions the story possibly served as a warning to young girls against socially premature sexual relations with men. Animals in dreams may certainly have a sexual meaning and the wolf is an obvious example of this, if only because the word Volf is itself commonly applied to men whose sexual lust is unbounded and purely ‘animal’. See also Frog, Wolf.

(7) If in your dream you arc being chased by an animal, the animal probably represents some (repressed) emotion or instinct. As long as you keep such things buried in your unconscious thev will continue to

plague and disturb you. Face up to whatever it is, and enter into receptive and patient dialogue with it.

(8) The killing of an animal may symbolize cither what has been described in (5) above (but now given exaggerated, dramatic expression) or the actual destruction of some essential, because natural, part of your psyche. The second alternative would indicate some fear of your own instinctive nature, some phobic undervaluing of the body, the senses, or sex. You would have to be very honest to work out which of these alternatives - an irrational slaughter (repression) of the natural self (a symbolic castration), or a rational taming of an instinct diat is threatening the balance of the psyche - is applicable in your own case.... A Dictionary of Dream Symbols

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A Dictionary of Dream Symbols

MOUSE

Suggestive of the mousy, shy or timid part of the self, dreaming of mice could also suggest small but important developments or subtle changes that can gnaw away at our self-esteem. Dreaming that you are a mouse could mean you feel dull, undistinguished and lacking in confidence in waking life. The sexual organ which goes in and out of a hole is another association.

If a person sees a mousetrap or a mouse caught in a trap, it could mean they need to watch out for people who gossip or take advantage of them.... The Element Encyclopedia

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The Element Encyclopedia

MONSTER

If you dream of being hunted by a savage and terrible monster of any kind, you might want to try and face it if the dream recurs. Mystery is not so terrifying once it is identified and understood, since it becomes something you can recognize and therefore deal with.

If you do recognize your personal monster, you might also want to try and engage it in a dialogue. A classic way to interpret a difficult dream such as this was devised by Dr Frederick Perls, the distinguished Gestalt therapist. Take two chairs and place them opposite each other. You sit in one and imagine your dream monster or enemy in the other chair. Move between the chairs as you first ask and answer the questions. Try asking your dream monster what it wants, why it is in your dreams and why it is chasing you. The process may take some time, but eventually you (as the dream) may deliver a message that speaks to you. When that happens, you may find it easier to face your fears and interpret your dream. By understanding nasty nightmare animals, as well as people, places or things, you may be able to harness their energy and take back into your self those parts of your personality you have been trying to disown.

Animals in dreams reflect the animal or instinctual part of your nature, so if the fierce animal terrorizing you in a dream is a tiger, lion or snake, consider what this animal represents to you and what it says about your psychological state. Are you confining, restricting or subduing an important part of yourself? If you begin to get answers to these questions, you may find that the animals in your dreams become less fierce and threatening. It might also help to draw or write a description of your animal. Of course, your personal associations to the specific animals is of great importance here.

If your shadow—the part of yourself that you keep hidden—appears in your dreams as a monster, fierce animal, murderer, vampire, werewolf, ghost or other sinister threatening being, this may be a positive thing; it is your dreaming mind’s way of reintroducing the parts of yourself you are repressing in an effort to make you whole. See also ANIMALS; SPIRITS AND GHOSTS; SURREALISM AND FANTASY.... The Element Encyclopedia

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The Element Encyclopedia

AGUARUNA

The Aguaruna are a people who inhabit Peru’s northern region, where they support themselves through horticulture, hunting, and fishing. Although the interest in dreams and visions among this people has been declining in recent years, it still plays an important role in their response to contemporary problems and in day- today decision making.

According to the Aguaruna, dreams may reveal emergent possibilities and events that are developing but have not yet occurred or become fully accomplished facts. Dreams are generally regarded as taking place during the wanderings of the soul during sleep, when it encounters other souls and discovers their intentions. However, the recent exposure of the Aguaruna to Christian concepts of the soul has introduced confusion regarding their understanding of dream experiences, in that some Aguaruna now argue that soul loss of any kind can only result in sickness.

In any case, dreams are considered exclusive events experienced only by the dreamer; they cannot be seen by other people. Dreams can be distinguished according to whether they are spontaneous or intentionally sought. The latter are more significant than the former, in that they require more personal sacrifice and offer greater rewards with respect to their manipulative potential. For the Aguaruna dreams represent a potential field for exercising human control because they occur in an arena of direct contact between people and powerful supernatural beings.

The most powerful Aguaruna dreams con- cern success in hunting and warfare, and they exercise the same control over the world as magic songs (which might be regarded as magic “spells”). A highly esteemed dream experience is the establishment of contact between a man and an ancient warrior soul that enables him to sur- vive an attack. This type of dream usually involves an initial vision of a terrifying entity that the dreamer must confront, followed by the apparition of the ancient warrior, who acknowledges the dreamer and confirms his future victory in battle. Dreams are often used as vehicles for the expression of authority by leaders and people in positions of power, and their complexity generally invites interpretation by people who have accumulated experience and knowledge in this field.

... Dreampedia

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Dreampedia

WHY DO WE DREAM? PHYSIOLOGY OF DREAMS

“Everything serious comes to us at night.”
CICERO

What happens when we sleep?

Why do we sleep? The answer is not as simple as it seems. We sleep so that our body can rest, we think at first. However, science has not been able to prove concretely that sleep is necessary for physical recuperation of the body. Experiments performed on rats have proven that when deprived of sleep, these animals die.

But human nature is not as simple as that of rats. Everyone knows people who barely sleep. The most extreme case, published in some scientific magazines, is that of a man who claims not to have slept since contracting a serious illness. In a similar vein, some individuals with a highly developed spirituality are able to remain conscious all night. We’re not referring to a student during exam time drinking coffee or taking stimulants to stay awake more than twenty-four hours straight. We’re talking about people who can achieve advanced levels of relaxation through deep meditation.

It is known that anxiety and lack of concentration increase considerably after a night or two without sleep. One theory related to sleep affirms that we sleep to conserve energy. However, another suggests that we rest to conserve our food stores, since when we lose consciousness, we repress the hunger mechanism.


How much do we sleep?

Sleep at different ages

In the course of his life, a person has, on average, 300,000 dreams. As we age, both the time we spend sleeping and the time we spend dreaming decrease gradually.

Newborns sleep almost all day, alternating hours of sleep with short spells of wakefulness. By one year of age, they sleep fewer sessions but for longer in total: they have cycles of 90 minutes of sleep followed by another 90 minutes of waking time. Gradually, the child will sleep more at night and less during the day. By 9 years of age, most need between 9 and 12 hours of sleep a day.

The average for an adult is between 7 and 8.5 hours. But after age 70, we return to the sleep phases of childhood and sleep fewer hours continuously.

There are arguments that even claim we have slept since ancient times in order to appear a less tasty snack for nocturnal predators (when we sleep, our body looks like a corpse).

There are theories to suit everyone, but we shouldn’t forget the fundamental: for almost all of us, sleeping is a relaxing and pleasant experience that lasts between six and eight hours each night, an experience that is utterly necessary to “recharge the batteries” of our bodies.

It’s no coincidence that we choose nighttime to sleep. In the darkness our vision is reduced, the world becomes strange, and as a result, our imagination runs wild. Our minds remain occupied with images (that is, dreams). At night, our eyes don’t work, but we have a need to create images. If for some reason we are deprived of sleep, the following nights our dream production increases, since we spend more time in the REM phase (the period of sleep when oneiric thoughts are most active). Therefore it seems evident that we need dreams to live.

Some ancient civilizations believed that dreaming served, more than anything, to be able to dream. They were convinced that oneiric activity wasn’t the result of sleeping, but rather the reason for it. Some scientists, however, don’t share the theories of our ancestors when it comes to the reason behind our dreams.

There is a scientific school of thought that asserts that oneiric thoughts are simply a neurophysiological activity that comes with sleep. According to this theory, when we sleep we generate spontaneous signals that stimulate the sensory channels in the mind. The brain transforms these signals into visual images and induces the dreamer to believe that he is living real experiences.

Up to that point, perfect. But, why do dreams have such an interesting narrative? Why do they so often express metaphoric language? Why do they narrate stories that directly affect us? There is no concrete or scientific answer to these questions.

Percentages of REM sleep

Cold-blooded animals never dream; the cold temperatures at night cause them to hibernate and all their vital functions, including the brain, slow down. Only when the sun comes out or the temperature rises to an acceptable level do they recuperate all vital functions. The only cold-blooded animal that has shown signs of dreaming is the chameleon.

On the other hand, we know all warm-blooded animals dream, since REM-phase activity has been detected in all of them. Birds dream only about 0.5% of the time they spend asleep, while humans dream up to 20% of the time. There are exceptional cases, such as that of the Australian platypus, that never dream.

Other theories suggest that dreams serve to eliminate unnecessary facts from memory, since we can’t store everything that happens every day. According to this thesis, at night we erase the “archives” we don’t need, just like a computer. The sleeping mind tests the process of erasing in the form of dreams, which would explain why they’re so difficult to remember. There are obvious limitations to this theory if you keep in mind that, occasionally, oneiric thoughts work creatively (they go beyond the information that we give them). These don’t have much to do with the merely “hygienic” function that the aforementioned scientific community claims. Often, dreams don’t eliminate the useless leftovers of daily experiences. Quite the opposite: they give them a surprising new shape, so when we wake up, we can reflect more deeply on their meaning.

The phases of sleep

Even though we don’t realize it, when we sleep at night we pass through four different phases of sleep. Each phase is distinguished by the deepness of sleep. That is, when we are in phase 1, it is a fairly light sleep; during phase 4, we reach maximum intensity.

When we go to sleep, we enter a period in which we gradually pull away from the exterior world. Little by little, our sleep deepens until finally (phase 4) our breathing slows and becomes regular, our cardiac rhythm slows down, and our body temperature decreases. Therefore the body’s metabolism also reduces its activity.

More or less an hour after falling asleep, your body has already gone through the four phases. At this point you begin to go back through the levels until you return to phase 1. This brings along an increase in respiratory and cardiac rhythm. Parallel to this, brain waves once again start to register an activity close to that of consciousness. You are therefore in a moment of transition, demonstrated by the fact that at this point the body tends to change position.

All signs indicate that any noise might wake us. But that’s not the case: since your muscle tone has been reduced, this is actually the moment when it’s most difficult to regain consciousness. At the same time, your eyes begin to move behind your eyelids (up and down and side to side). This ocular phenomenon, which anyone can observe easily, is known as the REM phases, which stands for “rapid eye movement.”

Certain areas of the brain are associated with different functions and human skills, translating external sensory stimuli into a well-organized picture of the world. In dreams, those same stimuli produce different reactions. If a sleeping person hears a sound or touches something repulsive, those stimuli will probably be integrated into their dream before they wake up.

The REM phase

The REM phase is particularly important for those interested in dreams. All studies indicate that during this brief spell (from five to ten minutes) we typically experience the most intense oneiric activity. Some of these studies, done in a sleep laboratory, have observed that eight out of ten individuals relate very vivid dreams when woken up right at the end of the REM phase. These periods alternate at night with what we could call non-REM phases, that is, periods when no ocular movement is registered.

How many times do we reach a REM stage at night? It is estimated that each cycle is repeated four to seven times. As the hours pass, each phase gets longer. This way, the final REM stage might last twenty to forty minutes. On average, an adult enjoys an hour and a half of REM sleep each night, although for older individuals it may be less than an hour and a quarter. Babies, on the other hand, remain in the REM phase for 60 percent of the time they spend asleep.

In any case, let’s make this clear: not all dreams are produced during this period. It has also been demonstrated that humans generate images in other stages. However, these are dreams of a different quality, since during the non-REM phases, our oneiric activity tends to generate only undefined thoughts, vague sensations, etc. Nothing close to the emotional content that characterizes dreams produced in the REM phase.

The oneiric images produced in the most intense phase (REM) are more difficult to remember. One method to remember them consists of waking up just after each REM phase.

As we’ve commented already, those who wish to read their dreams have to first do the work of remembering them. If we want this work to be 100 percent effective, we can use a method that, although uncomfortable, almost never fails: wake up just after every REM phase. If you want to try this method, set your alarm (without music or radio) to go off four, five, six, or seven and a half hours after falling asleep. You can be sure that if you wake up just after one of the REM phases you go through each night, you will enjoy vivid memories.

This is the process used in sleep laboratories, where oneiric activity is studied through encephalographic registry of electrical brain activity.

The people in the study—who are volunteers—sleep connected to machines that register their physiological reactions (brain waves, cardiac rhythm, blood pressure, muscle activity, eye movement, etc).

At certain points during the night, these reactions indicate that, if you wake them, they will be able to tell you what they dreamed. This is because the phase that produces the most intense dreams (REM) is characterized by a physical reaction easily observed: the rapid movement of the eyes of the dreamer.

With this method, sleep laboratories can collect proof of precisely

when subjects are dreaming. And given that oneiric images are difficult to remember, the lab techniques have been a great advance in dream research. Some experts assert that thanks to the scientific advances of the second half of the twentieth century, we have learned more about sleep processes in the last fifty years than in all the history of humanity.

What do we dream?

A wide study done in France on the subject of dreams produced these results:

  • Relationships with partners (18%)
  • Home, especially that of our childhood (15%) -Aggressors, thieves, being chased, etc. (10%)
  • Missing the train; embarrassing baggage (8%) -Water, wells, tunnels; traffic accidents (6%) -Forgotten children or babies (5%)
  • Snakes, fires, stairs (5%)
  • Negative animals: spiders, cockroaches, rats, etc. (4%) -Clothing or lack of clothing; nakedness (3%)
  • Losing teeth or other alarming situations (2%)

Hypnagogic images: between waking and sleep

As we’ve seen, throughout the night our sleep is divided into four distinct phases. But what happens just before we sink into the first phase? Are we still awake? Not exactly. In the moments when our mind decides between wakefulness and sleep, we begin to lose contact with the world around us, without the characteristic physiological changes of sleep.

This intermediate point has been called the “hypnagogic state” by psychologists. This is a period when, despite the fact that we’re not asleep, our brains generate images that can sometimes be very beautiful. In some ways, these images rival those found in our dreams.

Hypnagogic images of great visual beauty evaporate like bubbles when we wake up and are barely remembered.

However, the hypnagogic state cannot be considered a truly oneiric state. Among other reasons, the scenes produced in this phase are unrelated to the episodes with a more or less coherent plot that characterize dreams.

In the hypnagogic state we produce unrelated images that hardly connect to each other and that, unlike dreams, are not linked to our daily experiences. This phenomenon occurs not only before sleeping but also in the moments before waking up, when we are not yet conscious enough to be aware of them.

Sometimes, before falling asleep we also experience a curious sensation of floating or flying, or we may see very sharp scenes, with a clarity comparable to that of real visual experiences. These types of images, like dreams, evaporate like bubbles when we wake up and we barely remember them, which is a shame because their beauty slips from our minds. In any case, unlike oneiric thoughts, the hypnagogic state is little use for understanding the messages our subconscious wants to send us, and we should value it more for its beauty than its transcendental content.

Salvador Dali, painter of dreams.

To remember them you must not lose consciousness during the apparition. That is, you must observe the process of the hypnagogic state without falling asleep. It seems simple but it is not, because you must submerge yourself in sleep while the mind remains aware of the events happening in its interior. With a little luck, we can see some of the marvelous “paintings” of our private museum.

The surrealist artists of the 20s and 30s knew all about this. This is how Salvador Dali, fervent lover of hypnagogic scenes, turned to what is known as “the monk’s sleep.” He went to bed with a large iron key in his hand. With the first dream, the key would fall to the floor and he would wake up suddenly. In his mind he recorded the hypnagogic images he would later transfer to the canvas in his masterful style.

The seven “chakras,” or centers of subtle energy in the ayurvedic hindu medicine (1).
The nadis according to Tibetan tradition (2).
The meridians of traditional Chinese medicine (3).

If you have difficulty retaining the hypnagogic state, try centering your attention on a concrete point. For example the “third eye” of the yogis (that is, between your eyes), in the area of the heart, or in the top of the head. These three positions are, according to the philosophy of yoga, the centers of subtle rather than physical energy in the human body. You need a place to direct the mind. Another trick to hold attention without effort is to think abstractly about the name of the object you wish to see. This doesn’t mean you have to “create” the images; you just have to induce its appearance during the hypnagogic state. Entering through meditation is also very useful and beneficial.

Sometimes, the hypnagogic scenes are not as pleasant as we would like, but we must confront them in order to strengthen our ability for self-control. If they persist, try following the previous advice. Think abstractly about the name of what you want to see, resisting the temptation to construct it in a certain way from the conscious mind.

The main advantage of the hypnagogic state is that it brings us progressively closer to our deep Self . . . and all that helps to understand and better benefit from dreams.

The same subject can have very different meanings depending on the circumstances and personal situation of the dreamer.... Dreampedia

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